Common Water Terms & Definitions
Carbon: A nonmetallic element that occurs in many inorganic and in all organic compounds. Is capable of chemical self-bonding to form an enormous number of important molecules.
Chloramines: Chloramines are disinfectants used to treat drinking water. Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. The typical purpose of chloramines is to provide longer-lasting water treatment as the water moves through pipes to consumers. This type of disinfection is known as secondary disinfection
Types: Monochloramine, Dichloramine, Trichloramine, and Organic chloramines
Monochloramine: the most common form, triggers when chloramines are used to disinfect drinking water
Dichloramine: trichloramine, and organic chloramines1,2 are produced when treating drinking water but at much lower levels than monochloramin
Trichloramines: are typically associated with disinfected water used in swimming pools.
Organic Chloramines: is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, solid, chemical compounds whose carbon.
Chlorine: An element used to kill micro-organisms in water. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure it is a greenish yellow gas.
Type K: Copper Pipe has the thickest wall section of the three types of pressure rated tubing and is commonly used for deep underground burial such as under sidewalks and streets, with a suitable corrosion protection coating or continuous polyethylene sleeve as required by code. In the United States it usually has green colored printing.
Type L: Copper Pipe has a thinner pipe wall section, and is used in residential and commercial water supply and pressure applications. In the United States it usually has blue colored printing.
Type M:Copper Pipe has an even thinner pipe wall section, and is used in residential and commercial water supply and pressure applications. In the United States it usually has red colored printing.
Type DWV: DWV has the thinnest wall section, and is generally only suitable for un-pressurized applications, such as drains, waste and vent (DWV) lines. In the United States it usually has yellow or light orange colored printing, common sizes being 1-¼” , 1-½”, and 2″ copper tube size.
Dechlorinator: A dechlorinator, sometimes referred to as a chlorine neutralizer or a chlorine remover, is a chemical additive that renders the chlorine and chloramine in your aquarium source water harmless to your fish and biological filter.
Dissolved Solids: Also referred to as Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), it is the amount of nonvolatile matter dissolved in a water sample, and is usually expressed in parts-per-million by weight
Hardness:Total quantity of CaCO3 present in water. 1 gr. = 17.1 TDS in ppm per U.S. gallon
Concentration of calcium and magnesium salts in water. Hardness is a term originally referring to the soap-consuming power of water. As such it is sometimes also taken to include iron and manganese. High hardness can cause boiler or pipe scale and failure of reverse osmosis membranes.
Ion: An atom or group of atoms with an electrical charge that is positive (cation) or negative (anion) as a result of having lost or gained electrons.
KDF 55 Medium: Designed specifically for removing or reducing chlorine and water-soluble heavy metals. It controls scale, bacteria and algae, even in hot water. The process medium received NSF International Certification and is certified by NSF to NSF/ANSI Standard 42 – Drinking Water Treatment Units – Aesthetic Effects. This medium is also in compliance with California’s Health and Safety Code Section 166875 (or commonly know as AB1953) and Vermont Act 193.
KDF 85 Medium:Removes or reduces iron and hydrogen sulfide from municipal or other water supplies. Also controls scale, bacteria and algae.
KDF-F (Fines):Designed to remove chlorine and control bacteria when incorporated into carbon blocks as well as into other matrix-type filters.
KDF-C (Coarse Mesh):Granules are used for removal or reduction of soluble heavy metals and chlorine. For use when less pressure drop is required.
pH::The negative log of the hydrogen-ion concentration. A solution with a pH lower than 7 is acidic. If its pH is higher than 7 it is alkaline.
PPM:Parts per million. The most common measure of dissolved ionized impurities in water. The same as milligrams per liter.
Psig:Pounds per square inch of gauge pressure, or pressure above atmospheric pressure.
Plastic Bottle Terms
PCB:Polycarbonate (PCB), used to harden plastic. leaching of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupter, into contents, especially when subjected to heat; possible hazard for infants, possible increased risk of diabetes, heart disease in adults
Polyethylene, Terephthalate, (PET, PETE): Single-use water bottles, soft drink bottlesEnvironmental concern: unnecessary use of energy and resources for recycling purposes
Health concern: potential leaching of antimony trioxide, a chemical used to make PET, into contents after prolonged storage time; possible bacterial contamination if bottle is reused (cannot withstand high temperatures for sanitizing)
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE): Opaque milk, juice and large water containers
Concerns: minimal to date
Polyvinyl Chloride (V or PVC): juice bottles, cling wrap, plastic toys
Health: chemicals present in toys may be potential health hazard, especially for children under the age of three
Low DensityPolyethylene (LDPE): Squeezable food bottles, flexible lid containers
Concerns: minimal to date
Polypropylene (PP):Reusable, microwaveable, dishwasher safe, opaque kitchenware; disposable take-out containers, yogurt and margarine tubs, ENVIROCLEAR® plastic water bottles concerns: minimal to date
Polystyrene (PS):Egg cartons, disposable cups, take-out containers, grocery meat and vegetable trays
Health: potential to leach the chemical styrene, especially when oily foods are heated in these containers
Other often polycarbonate (PCB), used to harden plastic, to be differentiated from biodegradable plastics made from corn, potato starch or sugar cane; multilayer ethyl vinyl alcohol (EVOH)):
Types: baby bottles, sippy cups, sports bottles
Environmental: multilayer EVOH not recyclable
Health (PCB): leaching of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupter, into contents, especially when subjected to heat; possible hazard for infants, possible increased risk of diabetes, heart disease in adults
You may want to limit your use of containers bearing #1, 3, 6 and 7 (PCB) and (EVOH), when possible. Those with #2, 4 and 5 may be a better choice at the present time. Those without numbers may be questionable.
(Salt) Brine: A solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water. Salt Brine is generated / created by water softening systems during the regeneration process.
H2o Concepts Systems DO NOT USE SALT, and no salt brine is generated or created by our systems
Scale: Mineral deposits that can coat the insides of plumbing and boilers. It consists mainly of calcium carbonate, which precipitates out of solution under certain conditions of pH, alkalinity and hardness.
TDS: Total Dissolved Solids, the total weight of dissolved matter present in water that does not constitute pure water molecules. Measured in the form of resistively and or conductivity equated into TDS in ppm (parts per million per 1 U.S. gallon)